Wa Alaykum Salaam.
1) Answer: From the context of the verse and various commentaries, it seems
that the action of Nabi Ayyub (a.s)'s wife was so serious that he had vowed to
punish her physically. Indeed he was eager to forgive her but on account
of his vow, the Almighty Allah suggested to him a solution of using green
branch to gently strike her.
2) Answer: Yes, according to tafaseer (e.g. Enlightening Commentary into the
Light of the Quran, v. 15) , her action bordered that of shirk, which
according to the Holy Quran: is the greatest injustice (Q 31:13).
3) Answer: If we were to take to into consideration all the aspects of this
event and Islam's fundamental creed of Absolute Unity of Allah and not
to associate anyone or anything with Allah, the story will provide good
4) Answer: Allah found Nabi Ayyub (a) to be patient, [and] an excellent
servant (Q 38:44). Nabi Ayyub was being tested to the highest degree of
patience and when his wife gave into the temptations of Satan thus
frustrating Ayyub (a.s)'s efforts of remaining steadfast, his vow of punishing
his wife was understandable. To emphasize Ayyub's unwavering commitment
to Allah, the Quran ends this ayat with the phrase: Indeed, he (i.e.
Ayyub) was one repeatedly turning [to Allah] (Q 38:44).
5. Answer: Many lessons can be derived from this event. Three of these are:
1. Belief in Tawheed, requires absolute commitment and devotion to Allah
2. Nabi Ayyub is the best example (uswatul hasanah) and a hero of
3. Kindness and forgiveness takes precedence over harsh punishment a
person may have vowed to give.
Allah, knows the best.